Author(s): Mao H, Lafont BA, Igarashi T, Nishimura Y, Brown C,
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Abstract We have previously described two isogenic molecularly cloned simian immunodeficiency virus/human immunodeficiency virus chimeric viruses (SHIVs) that differ from one another by 9 amino acids and direct distinct clinical outcomes in inoculated rhesus monkeys. SHIV(DH12R-Clone 7), like other highly pathogenic CXCR4-tropic SHIVs, induces rapid and complete depletions of CD4+ T lymphocytes and immunodeficiency in infected animals. In contrast, macaques inoculated with SHIV(DH12R-Clone 8) experience only partial and transient losses of CD4+ T cells, show prompt control of their viremia, and remain healthy for periods of time extending for up to 4 years. The contributions of CD8+ and CD20+ lymphocytes in suppressing the replication of the attenuated SHIV(DH12R-Clone 8) and maintaining a prolonged asymptomatic clinical course was assessed by treating animals with monoclonal antibodies that deplete each lymphocyte subset at the time of virus inoculation. The absence of either CD8+ or CD20+ cells during the SHIV(DH12R-Clone 8) acute infection resulted in the rapid, complete, and irreversible loss of CD4+ T cells; sustained high levels of postpeak plasma viremia; and symptomatic disease in Mamu-A*01-negative Indian rhesus monkeys. In Mamu-A*01-positive animals, however, the aggressive, highly pathogenic phenotype was observed only in macaques depleted of CD8+ cells; SHIV(DH12R-Clone 8) was effectively controlled in Mamu-A*01-positive monkeys in the absence of B lymphocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that both CD8+ and CD20+ B cells contribute to the control of primate lentiviral infection in Mamu-A*01-negative macaques. Furthermore, the major histocompatibility complex genotype of an infected animal, as exemplified by the Mamu-A*01 allele in this study, has the additional capacity to shift the balance of the composite immune response.
This article was published in J Virol
and referenced in Epidemiology: Open Access