Author(s): van Wijngaarden J, van Beek E, van Rossum G, van der Bent C, Hoekman K,
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Abstract Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors are anti-inflammatory agents that have also shown to be useful in anticancer therapy. In the present study, we show that the specific COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib enhances the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin (dox) on human MDA-MB231 breast tumour growth in vivo and in vitro. We also found that celecoxib increased the intracellular accumulation and retention of dox in vitro. Since the NSAID indomethacin and the specific COX-2 inhibitor NS398 did not affect the in vitro actions of dox, these effects are likely to be mediated via a COX-independent mechanism. It has been suggested that some COX-inhibitors can enhance the actions of cytostatics by overcoming multidrug resistance through the inhibition of ABC-transporter proteins. However, we found that the three main ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-transporter proteins, implicated in dox transport, were inactive in MDA-MB231 cells. Therefore, the finding that the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) blocker PSC833 also increased cellular accumulation of dox was unexpected. In order to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in dox accumulation, we examined the involvement of NF-kappaB, as this transcription factor has been implicated in celecoxib action as well as in chemoresistance. We found that celecoxib and PSC833, but not indomethacin or NS398, almost completely inhibited basal- and dox induced NF-kappaB gene-reporter activity and p65 subunit nuclear translocation. Furthermore, the NF-kappaB inhibitor PDTC mimicked the actions of celecoxib and PSC833 on cell growth and on intracellular accumulation of dox, suggesting that NF-kappaB is functionally involved in the actions of these compounds. In conclusion, we show that structurally different compounds, among which are celecoxib and PSC833, increase the intracellular accumulation of dox and enhance dox induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells most likely via the modulation of NF-kappaB activity.
This article was published in Eur J Cancer
and referenced in Journal of Bioanalysis & Biomedicine