Author(s): Kobayashi N, Mita S, Yoshida K, Honda T, Kobayashi T
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and reactive oxygen species play critical roles in early atherogenesis, and nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of the cardiovascular system. Although celiprolol, a specific beta1-antagonist with weak beta2-agonistic action, stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production, the mechanisms remain to be determined. Because it was recently reported that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream effector Akt are implicated in the activation of eNOS and that regulation of VCAM-1 expression is mediated via nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), we hypothesized that celiprolol activates phosphorylation of eNOS through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway; that celiprolol modulates VCAM-1 expression, which is associated with inhibiting NF-kappaB phosphorylation; and that celiprolol suppresses NAD(P)H oxidase p22phox, p47phox, gp91phox, and nox1 expression in the left ventricle of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. eNOS and Akt phosphorylation upregulated by celiprolol alone were suppressed by treatment with celiprolol plus wortmannin. Increased expression of VCAM-1, p22phox, p47phox, gp91phox, nox1, activated p65 NF-kappaB, c-Src, p44/p42 extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and their downstream effector p90 ribosomal S6 kinase phosphorylation in DOCA rats was inhibited by celiprolol. Celiprolol administration resulted in a significant improvement in cardiovascular remodeling and suppression of transforming growth factor-beta1 gene expression. In conclusion, celiprolol suppresses VCAM-1 expression because of inhibition of oxidative stress, NF-kappaB, and signal transduction, while increasing eNOS via stimulation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and improving cardiovascular remodeling.