alexa Cellular energy utilization and molecular origin of standard metabolic rate in mammals.
Diabetes & Endocrinology

Diabetes & Endocrinology

Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

Author(s): Rolfe DF, Brown GC

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The molecular origin of standard metabolic rate and thermogenesis in mammals is examined. It is pointed out that there are important differences and distinctions between the cellular reactions that 1) couple to oxygen consumption, 2) uncouple metabolism, 3) hydrolyze ATP, 4) control metabolic rate, 5) regulate metabolic rate, 6) produce heat, and 7) dissipate free energy. The quantitative contribution of different cellular reactions to these processes is assessed in mammals. We estimate that approximately 90\% of mammalian oxygen consumption in the standard state is mitochondrial, of which approximately 20\% is uncoupled by the mitochondrial proton leak and 80\% is coupled to ATP synthesis. The consequences of the significant contribution of proton leak to standard metabolic rate for tissue P-to-O ratio, heat production, and free energy dissipation by oxidative phosphorylation and the estimated contribution of ATP-consuming processes to tissue oxygen consumption rate are discussed. Of the 80\% of oxygen consumption coupled to ATP synthesis, approximately 25-30\% is used by protein synthesis, 19-28\% by the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, 4-8\% by the Ca2(+)-ATPase, 2-8\% by the actinomyosin ATPase, 7-10\% by gluconeogenesis, and 3\% by ureagenesis, with mRNA synthesis and substrate cycling also making significant contributions. The main cellular reactions that uncouple standard energy metabolism are the Na+, K+, H+, and Ca2+ channels and leaks of cell membranes and protein breakdown. Cellular metabolic rate is controlled by a number of processes including metabolic demand and substrate supply. The differences in standard metabolic rate between animals of different body mass and phylogeny appear to be due to proportionate changes in the whole of energy metabolism. Heat is produced by some reactions and taken up by others but is mainly produced by the reactions of mitochondrial respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, and proton leak on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Free energy is dissipated by all cellular reactions, but the major contributions are by the ATP-utilizing reactions and the uncoupling reactions. The functions and evolutionary significance of standard metabolic rate are discussed.
This article was published in Physiol Rev and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

 
© 2008- 2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords