Author(s): Ryan JA, Overton KW, Speight ME, Oldenburg CN, Loo L,
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Internalization and subcellular localization in HeLa cells of gold nanoparticles modified with the SV40 large T antigen were quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Internalization was monitored as a function of incubation time, temperature, nanoparticle diameter, and large T surface coverage. Increasing the amount of large T peptides per gold nanoparticle complex, by either increasing the coverage at constant nanoparticle diameter or by increasing the nanoparticle diameter at constant large T coverage, resulted in more cellular internalization. In addition, nuclear fractionation was performed to quantify nuclear localization of these complexes as a function of large T coverage. In contrast to our prior qualitative investigations of nuclear localization by video-enhanced color differential interference contrast microscopy (VEC-DIC), ICP-OES was able to detect nanoparticles inside fractionated cell nuclei. Although increasing the large T coverage was found to afford higher cell internalization and nuclear targeting, quantitative evaluation of cytotoxicity revealed that higher large T coverages also resulted in greater cytotoxicity. The ICP-OES and nuclear fractionation techniques reported here are valuable tools that can add important quantitative information to optical and electron imaging methods such as VEC-DIC and transmission electron microscopy regarding the fate of nanoparticles in cells.
This article was published in Anal Chem
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology