Author(s): Dubben S, Hnscheid A, Winkler K, Rink L, Haase H
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Abstract It was reported previously that zinc-deficient mice show impaired lymphopoiesis. At the same time, monocyte numbers in these animals are increased, indicating a negative impact of zinc on monocyte development. Here, we investigate the role of zinc homeostasis in the differentiation of myeloid precursors into monocytes. Reduced gene expression of several zinc transporters, predominantly from the Zip family, was observed during 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D(3))-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells. This was accompanied by a reduction of intracellular-free zinc, measured by FluoZin-3. Amplifying this reduction with the zinc chelator TPEN or zinc-depleted cell-culture medium enhanced 1,25D(3)-induced expression of monocytic surface markers CD11b and CD14 on HL-60, THP-1, and NB4 cells. In contrast, differentiation of NB4 cells to granulocytes was not zinc-sensitive, pointing toward a specific effect of zinc on monocyte differentiation. Further, monocyte functions, such as TNF-alpha secretion, phagocytosis, and oxidative burst, were also augmented by differentiation in the presence of TPEN. The second messenger cAMP promotes monocyte differentiation. We could show that zinc inhibits the cAMP-synthesizing enzyme adenylate cyclase, and chelation of zinc by TPEN increases cAMP generation after stimulation with the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. Based on our in vitro results and the in vivo observations from the literature, we suggest a model in which the intracellular-free zinc concentration limits AC activity, and the decrease of zinc after 1,25D(3) treatment promotes differentiation by relieving AC inhibition. Thus, cellular zinc homeostasis acts as an endogenous modulator of monocyte differentiation.
This article was published in J Leukoc Biol
and referenced in Journal of Physical Chemistry & Biophysics