Author(s): Shimizu N, Haraguchi Y, Takeuchi Y, Soda Y, Kanbe K, , Shimizu N, Haraguchi Y, Takeuchi Y, Soda Y, Kanbe K,
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Abstract We examined the effect of amino acid substitutions of the GPGR (glycine-proline-glycine-arginine) tip sequence at the V3 domain of the Env protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on its cell tropism and coreceptor use. We changed the GPGR sequence of a T-cell line (T)- and macrophage (M)-tropic (R5-R3-X4) HIV-1 strain, GUN-1wt, to GA(alanine)GR (the resulting mutant was designated GUN-1/A), GL(leucine)GR (GUN-1/L), GP(proline)GR (GUN-1/P), GR(arginine)GR (GUN-1/R), GS(serine)GR (GUN-1/S), or GT(threonine)GR (GUN-1/T). GUN-1/A, GUN-1/S, and GUN-1/T mutants infected brain-derived cells such as a CD4-transduced glioma cell line, U87/CD4, and a brain-derived primary cell strain, BT-20/N, as well as T-cell lines in a CD4-dependent manner, although the plating of these mutants onto macrophages was inhibited. GUN-1/L, GUN-1/P, and GUN-1/R mutants showed both T- and M-tropism, but did not plate onto the brain-derived cells. A CCR3, CCR5, CCR8, or CXCR4 gene was introduced into a CD4-positive glioma cell line, NP-2/CD4, which demonstrated complete resistance to various HIV-1 strains. Not only HIV-1 strains, which were infectious to macrophages, such as GUN-1wt, GUN-1v, GUN-1/L, and GUN-1/P, but also an HIV-1 strain, GUN-1v, which was hardly infectious to macrophages, grew well in NP-2/CD4 cells expressing CCR3 or CCR5. However, the M-tropic GUN-1/R mutant could not efficiently use CCR5 nor CCR3. No point mutants, except GUN-1/L, grew well in NP-2/CD4 cells expressing CCR8. These findings indicate that the cell tropism of HIV-1 to macrophages and brain-derived cells and their use of the coreceptors were markedly, though not always concomitantly, affected by the tip sequence of the V3 domain. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
This article was published in Virology
and referenced in Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research