Author(s): Power C, Thomas C
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: Long-term implications of childhood obesity and BMI change over the life course for risk of type 2 diabetes remain uncertain. The objective was to establish whether there are effects on adult glucose metabolism of 1) sensitive periods of BMI gain or 2) long duration of overweight and obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants in the 1958 British birth cohort with child to adult BMI and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) at 45 years (n = 7,855). RESULTS: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes or HbA(1c) ≥7 was 2\%. BMI gains in child- and adulthood were associated with higher HbA(1c): for every SD of 5-year BMI increase from 0 to 7 years, there was a 75\% (95\% CI 1.42-2.16) increased risk of HbA(1c) ≥7, increasing to a 4.7-fold (3.12-7.00) risk for the interval 23-33 years. Associations for BMI gain in adulthood were related to attained BMI but were independent for the longer period birth (or 7 years) to 45 years. Duration of obesity was also associated with HbA(1c); compared with the never obese, those with childhood onset had a 23.9-fold risk (13.5-42.1) of HbA(1c) ≥7\%; odds ratios were 16.0 (10.6-24.2) and 2.99 (1.77-5.03), respectively, for young and midadulthood onset. Similar trends by onset age were found in mean HbA(1c) levels and for onset of overweight. Those with the earliest age of onset had higher BMI and waist circumference at 45 years, which markedly explained the associations for onset age and HbA(1c). CONCLUSIONS: Excessive BMI gain across the life span and earlier onset of overweight/obesity are associated with impaired glucose metabolism, in part through attained adult BMI.
This article was published in Diabetes Care
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy