Author(s): Librio AB, Daher EF, de Castro MC
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Abstract Acidosis is a common and deleterious aspect of maintenance dialysis. Traditionally, it is considered to be an elevated anion gap acidosis caused by the inability to excrete nonvolatile anions. Stewart's approach made it possible to identify real determinants of the acid-base status and allowed quantification of the components of these disturbances, especially the unmeasured anions. We performed a cross-sectional study to identify and quantify each component of acidosis in hemodialysis maintenance patients. Sixty-four maintenance hemodialysis patients and 14 controls were enrolled in this study. Gasometrical and biochemical analysis were performed before the midweek dialysis session. Quantitative physicochemical analysis was carried out using the Stewart methodology. Hemodialysis patients were found to have mild acidemia (mean pH: 7.33 +/- 0.06 versus 7.41 +/- 0.05) secondary to metabolic acidosis (serum bicarbonate: 18.8 +/- 0.26 versus 25.2 +/- 0.48 mEq/l). The metabolic acidosis was due to retention of unmeasured anions (6.5 +/- 0.29 versus 3.1 +/- 0.62 mEq/l), hyperchloremia (105.1 +/- 0.5 versus 101.8 +/- 0.7 mEq/l), and hyperphosphatemia (5.90 +/- 0.19 versus 3.66 +/- 0.14 mg/dl). Compared with control values, the unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia had a similar acidifying effect (3.4 and 3.3 mEq/l), corresponding to almost 90\% of the metabolic acidosis. Unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia are important components of acidosis in maintenance hemodialysis, in addition to phosphorus. Future studies to determine the etiology and consequences of hyperchloremic acidosis are warranted.
This article was published in J Artif Organs
and referenced in Journal of Hypertension: Open Access