alexa Characterization of HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance after second-line treatment failure in Mali, a limited-resources setting
Microbiology

Microbiology

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Author(s): Maiga AI

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OBJECTIVES: We describe the outcomes of second-line drug resistance profiles and predict the efficacy of drugs for third-line therapy in patients monitored without the benefit of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) or resistance testing. METHODS: We recruited 106 HIV-1-infected patients after second-line treatment failure in Mali. VL was determined by the Abbott RealTime system and the resistance by the ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system. The resistance testing was interpreted using the latest version of the Stanford algorithm. RESULTS: Among the 106 patients, 93 had isolates successfully sequenced. The median age, VL and CD4 cells were respectively 35 years, 72 000 copies/mL and 146 cells/mm(3). Patients were exposed to a median of 4 years of treatment and to six antiretrovirals. We found 20% of wild-type viruses. Resistance to etravirine was noted in 38%, to lopinavir in 25% and to darunavir in 12%. The duration of prior nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor exposure was associated with resistance to abacavir (P < 0.0001) and tenofovir (P = 0.0001), and duration of prior protease inhibitor treatment with resistance to lopinavir (P < 0.0001) and darunavir (P = 0.06). CONCLUSION: Long duration of therapy prior to failure was associated with high levels of resistance and is directly related to limited access to VL monitoring and delayed switches to second-line treatment, precluding efficacy of drugs for third-line therapy. This study underlines the need for governments and public health organizations to recommend the use of VL monitoring and also the availability of darunavir and raltegravir for third-line therapies in the context of limited-resource settings.

This article was published in J Antimicrob Chemother and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

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