Author(s): Friedlander AM, Bhatnagar R, Leppla SH, Johnson L, Singh Y
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Abstract Anthrax lethal toxin, which consists of two proteins, protective antigen and lethal factor, is cytolytic for macrophages. Macrophages from different mouse strains were found to vary in their sensitivities to toxin. C3H mouse macrophages lysed by lethal factor concentrations of 0.001 micrograms/ml were 100,000 times more sensitive than those from resistant A/J mice. We analyzed various stages of the intoxication process to determine the basis for this resistance. Direct binding studies with radioiodinated protective antigen revealed that the affinity (Kd, approximately 0.5 nM) and number of receptors per cell (25,000 to 33,000) were the same in sensitive and resistant cells. Proteolytic activation of protective antigen by a cell surface protease and subsequent binding of lethal factor were also the same in both sensitive and resistant macrophages. Resistant A/J macrophages were not cross-resistant to other toxins and a virus which, like lethal toxin, require vesicular acidification for activity, implying that resistance is not due to a defect in vesicular acidification. When introduced into the cytosol by osmotic lysis of pinosomes, lethal factor in the absence of protective antigen was cytolytic for the sensitive macrophages while resistant cells were unaffected. Thus, lethal factor by itself possesses the toxic activity of lethal toxin. These results suggest that macrophage resistance is due to a defect at a stage occurring after toxin internalization. A/J macrophages may lack the putative lethal factor target in the cytosol or be defective in the further processing or activation of lethal factor in the cytosol or in endocytic vesicles.
This article was published in Infect Immun
and referenced in Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense
- Eugene Stephane Mananga
On Fer and Floquet-Magnus expansions: Application in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics
- Yosef Yarden
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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