alexa Chemokine antagonist infusion promotes axonal sparing after spinal cord contusion injury in rat.
Biochemistry

Biochemistry

Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access

Author(s): Ghirnikar RS, Lee YL, Eng LF

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Abstract Spinal cord injury produced by mechanical contusion causes the onset of acute and chronic degradative events. These include blood brain barrier disruption, edema, demyelination, axonal damage and neuronal cell death. Posttraumatic inflammation after spinal cord injury has been implicated in the secondary injury that ultimately leads to neurologic dysfunction. Studies after spinal cord contusion have shown expression of several chemokines early after injury and suggested a role for them in the ordered recruitment of inflammatory cells at the lesion site (McTigue et al. [1998] J. Neurosci. Res. 53:368-376; Lee et al., [2000] Neurochem Int). We have demonstrated previously that infusion of the broad-spectrum chemokine receptor antagonist (vMIPII) in the contused spinal cord initially attenuates leukocyte infiltration, suppresses' gliotic reaction and reduces neuronal damage after injury. These changes are accompanied by increased expression of bcl-2, the endogenous apoptosis inhibitor, and reduced neuronal apoptosis (Ghirnikar et al. [2000] J. Neurosci. Res. 59:63-73). We demonstrate that 2 and 4 weeks of vMIPII infusion in the contusion-injured spinal cord also results in decreased hematogenous infiltration and is accompanied by reduced axonal degeneration in the gray matter. Luxol fast blue and MBP immunoreactivity indicated reduced myelin breakdown in the dorsal and ventral funiculi. Increased neuronal survival in the ventral horns of vMIPII infused cords was seen along with increased bcl-2 staining in them. Immunohistochemical identification of fiber phenotypes showed increased presence of calcitonin gene related peptide, choline acetyl transferase and tyrosine hydroxylase positive fibers as well as increased GAP43 staining in treated cords. These results suggest that sustained reduction in posttraumatic cellular infiltration is beneficial for tissue survival. A preliminary report of this study has been published (Eng et al. [2000] J. Neurochem. 74(Suppl):S67B). In contrast to vMIPII, infusion of MCP-1 (9-76), a N-terminal analog of the MCP-1 chemokine showed only a modest reduction in cellular infiltration at 14 and 21 dpi without significant tissue survival after spinal cord contusion injury. Comparing data on tissue survival obtained with vMIPII and MCP-1 (9-76) further validate the importance of the use of broad-spectrum antagonists in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Controlling the inflammatory reaction and providing a growth permissive environment would enhance regeneration and ultimately lead to neurological recovery after spinal cord injury. J. Neurosci. Res. 64:582-589, 2001. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. This article was published in J Neurosci Res and referenced in Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access

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