Author(s): Stanisic M
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 as markers of the inflammatory responses in chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH).
METHODS: Samples of peripheral venous blood and CSDH fluid (obtained during surgery) in 76 adult patients were prospectively analyzed. Chemokine values were assessed by a Multiplex antibody bead kit. RESULTS: We found significantly higher levels of chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in hematoma fluid compared with serum.
CONCLUSIONS: Chemokines are elevated in the hematoma cavity of patients with CSDH. It is likely that these signaling modulators play an important role in promoting local inflammation. Furthermore, biological activity of CCL2 and CXCL8 may promote neovascularization within the outer CSDH membrane, and a compensatory angiostatic activity of CXCL9 and CXCL10 may contribute to repairing this disorder. This phenomenon was restricted to the hematoma site, and the systemic chemokine levels might not reflect local immune responses.Journal of Orthopedic Oncology