Author(s): Gregoire V, Hittelman WN, Rosier JF, Milas L, Gregoire V, Hittelman WN, Rosier JF, Milas L
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Abstract The available knowledge on potential radiosensitizing nucleoside analogues with special focus on fludarabine and gemcitabine is reviewed. These analogues are prodrugs whose active triphosphate forms inhibit various enzymes involved in DNA synthesis and repair. Several properties of these analogues support their use as radiosensitizers. As repair inhibitors, they have the potential to increase the amount of residual DNA and chromosome damage after irradiation, and as DNA synthesis inhibitors, they specifically target the S-phase cell component and could thus overcome the detrimental effect of tumor clonogen repopulation during fractionated irradiation. Also, through their cytotoxic effect, these analogues could increase tumor cell loss, facilitating tumor reoxygenation, and thus obviate tumor hypoxia's inhibitory effect on radioresponse. Induction of DNA damage in all phases of the cell cycle by irradiation could create DNA sites for drug incorporation, possibly inducing an apoptotic response in cells outside of S-phase. Experimental data addressing these hypotheses are reviewed and updates on ongoing clinical trials combining fludarabine or gemcitabine and irradiation are given.
This article was published in Oncol Rep
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy