Author(s): Kisk G, Sharp R, Roller S
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Abstract AIMS: To develop new measures for controlling both spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms in unpasteurized apple juice using chitosan. METHODS AND RESULTS: Micro-organisms were isolated and identified from apple juice treated or untreated with chitosan using enrichment, selective media, microscopy, substrate assimilation patterns and ribosomal DNA profiling. Chitosan (0.05-0.1\%) delayed spoilage by yeasts at 25 degrees C for up to 12 days but the effect was species specific: Kloeckera apiculata and Metschnikowia pulcherrima were inactivated but Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia spp. multiplied slowly. In challenge experiments at 25 degrees C, total yeast counts were 3-5 log CFU ml(-1) lower in chitosan-treated juices than in the controls for 4 days but the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was extended from 1 to 2 days; at 4 degrees C, chitosan reduced the yeast counts by 2-3 log CFU ml(-1) for up to 10 days but survival of the pathogen was prolonged from 3 to 5 days. The survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was unaffected by chitosan at either temperature. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of chitosan to apple juice delayed spoilage by yeasts but enhanced the survival of E. coli O157:H7. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The results suggest that the use of chitosan in the treatment of fruit juices may potentially lead to an increased risk of food poisoning from E. coli O157:H7.
This article was published in J Appl Microbiol
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine