Author(s): Gnanadhas DP, Ben Thomas M, Elango M, Raichur AM, Chakravortty D
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Abstract OBJECTIVES: The ability to target conventional drugs efficiently inside cells to kill intraphagosomal bacteria has been a major hurdle in treatment of infective diseases. We aimed to develop an efficient drug delivery system for combating infection caused by Salmonella, a well-known intracellular and intraphagosomal pathogen. Chitosan-dextran sulphate (CD) nanocapsules were assessed for their efficiency in delivering drugs against Salmonella. METHODS: The CD nanocapsules were prepared using the layer-by-layer method and loaded with ciprofloxacin or ceftriaxone. Antibiotic-loaded nanocapsules were analysed in vitro for their ability to enter epithelial and macrophage cells to kill Salmonella. In vivo pharmacokinetics and organ distribution studies were performed to check the efficiency of the delivery system. The in vivo antibacterial activity of free antibiotic and antibiotic loaded into nanocapsules was tested in a murine salmonellosis model. RESULTS: In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that this delivery system can be used effectively to clear Salmonella infection. CD nanocapsules were successfully employed for efficient targeting and killing of the intracellular pathogen at a dosage significantly lower than that of the free antibiotic. The increased retention time of ciprofloxacin in the blood and organs when it was delivered by CD nanocapsules compared with the conventional routes of administration may be the reason underlying the requirement for a reduced dosage and frequency of antibiotic administration. CONCLUSIONS: CD nanocapsules can be used as an efficient drug delivery system to treat intraphagosomal pathogens, especially Salmonella infection. This delivery system might be used effectively for other vacuolar pathogens including Mycobacteria, Brucella and Legionella.
This article was published in J Antimicrob Chemother
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine