Author(s): Wu YB, Li HQ, Ren MS, Li WT, Lv XY,
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Abstract BACKGROUND/AIMS: Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent and severe diabetic complication characterized by progressive loss of peripheral nerve axons and manifested by pain and eventually complete loss of sensation. Effective therapy for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is still lacking due to our limited understanding of the mechanisms for nerve injury. METHODS: Here we tested the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the ER stress-activated pro-apoptotic protein CHOP and anti-apoptotic protein ORP150 in DPN in a rat model of high-fat/streptozotocin diabetes and in cultured Schwann cells (SCs). RESULTS: No significant DPN was seen in the early stage of diabetes (4 weeks following verification of diabetes). However, after prolonged diabetes (16 weeks following verification of diabetes), DPN was severely developed as reflected by slowed motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, blunted thermal nociception, and decreased intraepidermal nerve fiber profiles in the hindpaw. Meanwhile, while it was not noticed in sciatic nerves of early diabetes, ER stress in prolonged diabetic rats was indicated by robust increases in H2O2 production and expression of the ER chaperon glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). ORP150 expression was substantially upregulated, accompanied by mild increase in CHOP expression, resulting in a low CHOP/ORP150 ratio, in early diabetes. In contrast, with prolonged diabetes, CHOP expression exceeded ORP150 expression, resulting in an increased CHOP/ORP150 ratio. In vivo knockdown of ORP150 induced DPN in early diabetes and exacerbated the DPN after prolonged diabetes, whereas knockdown of CHOP ameliorated DPN in rats with prolonged diabetic. On the other hand, in vitro knockdown of ORP150 promoted high glucose-induced SC apoptosis, whereas knockdown of CHOP protected SCs from apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Taken together, we have provided evidence for the critical role of ER stress in the development of DN and also uncovered CHOP/ORP150 ratio as an important mechanism for determining neuronal apoptosis during ER stress. In the early stage of diabetes, CHOP/ORP150 ratio was relatively low favoring neuronal cell survival, whereas after prolonged diabetes, CHOP/ORP150 ratio increased resulting in apoptotic cell death leading to accelerated DPN. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
This article was published in Cell Physiol Biochem
and referenced in Biochemistry & Analytical Biochemistry