Author(s): Wagschal A, Delaval K, Pannetier M, Arnaud P, Feil R
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Abstract INTRODUCTIONIn cells and tissues, the histone proteins that constitute the nucleosomes can present multiple post-translational modifications, such as lysine acetylation, lysine and arginine methylation, serine phosphorylation, and lysine ubiquitination. On their own, or in combination, these covalent modifications on the core histones are thought to play essential roles in chromatin organization and gene expression in eukaryotes. Importantly, patterns of histone modifications may be somatically conserved and can, thereby, maintain locus-specific repression/activity in defined lineages, or throughout development. Indirect immunofluorescence studies on cultured cells have been pivotal in unraveling the roles of histone modifications. However, to address in detail what happens at specific sites in vivo, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is the method of choice. Here, we describe how ChIP can be performed on non-fixed chromatin from animal cells or tissues (fresh or frozen) to analyze histone modifications at specific chromosomal sites. These protocols are suitable only for analyzing histones and their modifications. For other applications, chromatin immunoprecipitation should be performed on cross-linked chromatin.
This article was published in CSH Protoc
and referenced in Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability