Author(s): Durazzo TC, Rothlind JC, Cardenas VA, Studholme C, Weiner MW,
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Abstract Alcohol use disorders (AUD) and chronic cigarette smoking are common among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). Concurrent AUD in HIV is related to greater abnormalities in brain morphology and neurocognition than either condition alone. However, the potential influence of chronic smoking on brain morphology and neurocognition in those concurrently afflicted with AUD and HIV has not been examined. The goal of this retrospective analysis was to determine if chronic smoking affected neurocognition and brain morphology in a subsample of HIV-positive non-treatment-seeking heavy drinking participants (HD+) from our earlier work. Regional volumetric and neurocognitive comparisons were made among age-equivalent smoking HD+(n=17), nonsmoking HD+ (n=27), and nonsmoking HIV-negative light drinking controls (n=27) obtained from our original larger sample. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment evaluated multiple neurocognitive domains of functioning and for potential psychiatric comorbidities. Quantitative volumetric measures of neocortical gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), subcortical structures, and sulcal and ventricular cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance images. The main findings were (1) smoking HD+ performed significantly worse than nonsmoking HD+ on measures of auditory-verbal (AV) learning, AV memory, and cognitive efficiency; (2) relative to controls, smoking HD+ demonstrated significantly lower neocortical GM volumes in all lobes except the occipital lobe, while nonsmoking HD+ showed only lower frontal GM volume compared with controls; (3) in the HD+ group, regional brain volumes and neurocognition were not influenced by viremia, highly active antiretroviral treatment, or Center for Disease Control symptom status, and no interactions were apparent with these variables or smoking status. Overall, the findings suggested that the direct and/or indirect effects of chronic cigarette smoking created an additional burden on the integrity of brain neurobiology and neurocognition in this cohort of HIV-positive heavy drinkers.
This article was published in Alcohol
and referenced in Mass Spectrometry & Purification Techniques