alexa Chronic Granulomatous Disease: Clinical, Functional, Molecular and Genetic Studies. The Israeli Experience with 84 patients.
Microbiology

Microbiology

Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology

Author(s): Wolach B, Gavrieli R, de Boer M, van Leeuwen K, BergerAchituv S,

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Abstract Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an innate immunodeficiency with a genetic defect of the nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced, oxidase components. This leads to decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which renders patients susceptible to life-threatening infections. Over the course of 30 years, we diagnosed CGD in 84 patients from 61 families using functional, molecular and genetic studies. The incidence of CGD in Israel is 1.05 per 100,000 live-births in the Jewish population and 1.49 in the Israeli Arab population. We diagnosed 52 patients (62\%) with autosomal recessive inheritance (AR-CGD) and 32 (38\%) with X-linked recessive inheritance (XLR-CGD). Consanguinity was detected in 64\% of AR-CGD families (14\% in Jews and 50\% in Israeli Arabs). We found 36 different mutations (23 in XLR-CGD and 13 in AR-CGD patients), 15 of which were new. The clinical spectrum of CGD varied from mild to severe disease in both XLR and AR forms, although the AR subtype is generally milder. Further, residual ROS production correlated with milder clinical expression, better prognosis and improved overall survival. Patients with recurrent pyogenic infections developed fibrosis and hyperinflammatory states with granuloma formation. The management of CGD has progressed substantially in recent years, evolving from a fatal disease of early childhood to one of long-term survival. Our present cohort displays an encouraging 81\% overall long term survival. Early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is advisable before tissue damage is irreversible. Successful transplantation was performed in 18/21 patients. Therapeutic gene modification could become an alternative cure for CGD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. This article was published in Am J Hematol and referenced in Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology

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