Author(s): Pyram R, Kansara A, Banerji MA, LoneyHutchinson L
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Abstract Chronic kidney disease has a significant worldwide prevalence affecting 7.2\% of the global adult population with the number dramatically increasing in the elderly. Although the causes are various, diabetes is the most common cause of CKD in the United States and an increasing cause of the same worldwide. Therefore, we chose to focus on diabetic chronic kidney disease in this review. The pathogenesis is multifactorial involving adaptive hyperfiltration, advanced glycosylated end-product synthesis (AGES), prorenin, cytokines, nephrin expression and impaired podocyte-specific insulin signaling. Treatments focus on lifestyle interventions including control of hyperglycemia, hypertension and hyperlipidemia as well treatment of complications and preparation for renal replacement therapy. This review examines the current literature on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, complications and treatment of CKD as well as possible areas of future disease intervention. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
This article was published in Maturitas
and referenced in Journal of Molecular Histology & Medical Physiology