Author(s): Muramatsu H, Makishima H, Maciejewski JP
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Abstract Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) are distinct, yet related, entities of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) characterized by morphologic dysplasia with accumulation of monocytes or neutrophils, respectively. Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CMML and aCML has advanced, mainly due to the application of novel technologies such as array-based karyotyping and next-generation sequencing. In addition to previously known recurrent aberrations, somatic uniparental disomy affecting chromosomes 3, 4, 7, and 11 frequently occurs in CMML. Novel somatic mutations of genes, including those associated with proliferation signaling (CBL, RAS, RUNX1, JAK2 (V617F)) and with modification of epigenetic status (TET2, ASXL1, UTX, EZH2) have been found. Various combinations of mutations suggest a multistep pathogenesis and may account for clinical heterogeneity. Most recently, several spliceosome-associated-gene mutations were reported and SRSF2 mutations are frequently detected in CMML. The prognostic and diagnostic significance of these molecular lesions, in particular their value as biomarkers of response or resistance to specific therapies, while uncertain now is likely to be clarified as large systematic studies come to completion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Semin Oncol
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals