Author(s): Armstrong BG, McDonald AD, Sloan M
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Abstract We analyzed data from a survey of occupational factors and pregnancy outcome to examine the effects of cigarette, alcohol, and coffee consumption on pregnancy outcome. Clear and statistically significant associations were found between cigarette and alcohol consumption and spontaneous abortion. There was a weaker but statistically significant association with coffee consumption: If the associations were casual, 11\% of the spontaneous abortions could be attributed to smoking, 5\% to alcohol, and 2\% to coffee.
This article was published in Am J Public Health
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy