Author(s): Cook MB, Kamangar F, Whiteman DC, Freedman ND, Gammon MD,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Previous studies that showed an association between smoking and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction were limited in their ability to assess differences by tumor site, sex, dose-response, and duration of cigarette smoking cessation. METHODS: We used primary data from 10 population-based case-control studies and two cohort studies from the Barrett's Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium. Analyses were restricted to white non-Hispanic men and women. Patients were classified as having esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 1540), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (n = 1450), or a combination of both (all adenocarcinoma; n = 2990). Control subjects (n = 9453) were population based. Associations between pack-years of cigarette smoking and risks of adenocarcinomas were assessed, as well as their potential modification by sex and duration of smoking cessation. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) estimated using multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, education, and gastroesophageal reflux, were pooled using a meta-analytic methodology to generate summary odds ratios. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The summary odds ratios demonstrated strong associations between cigarette smoking and esophageal adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.96, 95\% confidence interval [CI] = 1.64 to 2.34), esophagogastric junctional adenocarcinoma (OR = 2.18, 95\% CI = 1.84 to 2.58), and all adenocarcinoma (OR = 2.08, 95\% CI = 1.83 to 2.37). In addition, there was a strong dose-response association between pack-years of cigarette smoking and each outcome (P < .001). Compared with current smokers, longer smoking cessation was associated with a decreased risk of all adenocarcinoma after adjusting for pack-years (<10 years of smoking cessation: OR = 0.82, 95\% CI = 0.60 to 1.13; and > or =10 years of smoking cessation: OR = 0.71, 95\% CI = 0.56 to 0.89). Sex-specific summary odds ratios were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette smoking is associated with increased risks of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in white men and women; compared with current smoking, smoking cessation was associated with reduced risks.
This article was published in J Natl Cancer Inst
and referenced in Journal of Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis