Author(s): Almagro L, Gmez Ros LV, BelchiNavarro S, Bru R, Ros Barcel A,
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Abstract When plants are attacked by pathogens, they defend themselves with an arsenal of defence mechanisms, both passive and active. The active defence responses, which require de novo protein synthesis, are regulated through a complex and interconnected network of signalling pathways that mainly involve three molecules, salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET), and which results in the synthesis of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. Microbe or elicitor-induced signal transduction pathways lead to (i) the reinforcement of cell walls and lignification, (ii) the production of antimicrobial metabolites (phytoalexins), and (iii) the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Among the proteins induced during the host plant defence, class III plant peroxidases (EC 220.127.116.11; hydrogen donor: H(2)O(2) oxidoreductase, Prxs) are well known. They belong to a large multigene family, and participate in a broad range of physiological processes, such as lignin and suberin formation, cross-linking of cell wall components, and synthesis of phytoalexins, or participate in the metabolism of ROS and RNS, both switching on the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed host cell death at the infection site associated with limited pathogen development. The present review focuses on these plant defence reactions in which Prxs are directly or indirectly involved, and ends with the signalling pathways, which regulate Prx gene expression during plant defence. How they are integrated within the complex network of defence responses of any host plant cell will be the cornerstone of future research.
This article was published in J Exp Bot
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy