alexa Clinical applications of EPR: overview and perspectives.

Journal of Pharmacokinetics & Experimental Therapeutics

Author(s): Swartz HM, Khan N, Buckey J, Comi R, Gould L,

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Abstract The development and use of in vivo techniques for strictly experimental applications in animals has been very successful, and these results now have made possible some very attractive potential clinical applications. The area with the most obvious immediate, effective and widespread clinical use is oximetry, where EPR almost uniquely can make repeated and accurate measurements of pO2 in tissues. Such measurements can provide clinicians with information that can impact directly on diagnosis and therapy, especially for oncology, peripheral vascular disease and wound healing. The other area of immediate and timely importance is the unique ability of in vivo EPR to measure clinically significant exposures to ionizing radiation 'after-the-fact', such as may occur due to accidents, terrorism or nuclear war. There are a number of other capabilities of in vivo EPR that also potentially could become extensively used in human subjects. In pharmacology the unique capabilities of in vivo EPR to detect and characterize free radicals could be applied to measure free radical intermediates from drugs and oxidative process. A closely related area of potential widespread applications is the use of EPR to measure nitric oxide. These often unique capabilities, combined with the sensitivity of EPR spectra to the immediate environment (e.g. pH, molecular motion, charge) have already resulted in some very productive applications in animals and these are likely to expand substantially in the near future. They should provide a continually developing base for extending clinical uses of in vivo EPR. The challenges for achieving full implementation include adapting the spectrometer for safe and comfortable measurements in human subjects, achieving sufficient sensitivity for measurements at the sites of the pathophysiological processes that are being measured, and establishing a consensus on the clinical value of the measurements. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. This article was published in NMR Biomed and referenced in Journal of Pharmacokinetics & Experimental Therapeutics

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