Author(s): Nogueira MG, Andrade GM, Tonelli E
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Abstract Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) in children is rare, and its clinical progression is not clearly understood. The admission and post-admission clinical records of 38 children and teenagers aged up to 14 were studied who had been under treatment for 24-30 months. It is a consecutive case series, 17 retrospective and 21 prospective, from 1977 to 2000, admitted before and after 1990, respectively. The main clinical presentations were lymphatic, abdominal and cutaneous involvement, and fever. The alterations which disappeared more slowly were lymphadenomegaly, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and osteoarticular pain. Poor intestinal absorption, esophageal varices and splenic calcification were observed before treatment and persisted as sequelae. There was a satisfactory response to initial treatment in 56.7\% of cases. Half the patients became asymptomatic in the ninth month of treatment, and 17+/-8\% of cases presented with at least one symptom of the disease after 30 months of treatment. There were five deaths, and treatment failure was frequent and associated in part with the irregular use of antifungal. Treatment with ketoconazole was safe and effective. PCM is a serious systemic disease with slow evolution and high lethality, requiring treatment maintenance for a minimum of 24 months with careful and prolonged follow-up. Studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of different antifungals and the ideal treatment length for children with PCM.
This article was published in Mycopathologia
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals