Author(s): Lee MP, Chan JW, Ng KK, Li PC
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of HIV infection on the clinical presentation of tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY: We retrospectively studied the impact of HIV infection on the clinical presentation of tuberculosis. A total of 60 consecutive patients co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis were identified. RESULTS: Majority were male (88.3\%) and the most common transmission category was heterosexual contact (80\%). Most were in the advanced stage of HIV infection; 93\% had CD4 cell count less than 200/mm3. Concerning the site of tuberculosis involvement, 37\% had pulmonary involvement alone, 13\% had extrapulmonary disease involving one single site, 50\% had both pulmonary and extrapulmonary involvement. Fifteen (25\%) patients also met the criteria of disseminated tuberculosis, who had a significantly lower mean CD4 cell count than those with pulmonary involvement alone (mean 40 vs 102; P = 0.048). Chest radiographs comprised a wide spectrum of manifestations. A considerable proportion had primary pulmonary tuberculosis pattern (38\%) and normal radiographs (8.5\%). CONCLUSIONS: Our patients generally had advanced HIV infection; 93\% of those had CD4 lymphocyte count < 200/mm3. Extrapulmonary involvement and disseminated disease were common. Radiographic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis were often 'atypical' due to the greater proportion of primary tuberculosis among our patients.
This article was published in Respirology
and referenced in Journal of Infectious Diseases & Preventive Medicine