Author(s): Paul SB, Chalamalasetty SB, Vishnubhatla S, Madan K, Gamanagatti SR,
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To study the profile and outcome of therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in India. METHODS: Data analysis of HCC patients enrolled in liver clinic between 1990 and 2005. RESULTS: We registered 324 HCC patients [males 284 (88\%), mean age 52.4 +/- 13.1 years]. The etiology of HCC was: hepatitis B virus 165 (51\%), hepatitis C virus 38 (12\%), alcohol 20 (6\%), combined 31 (10\%) and unknown 70 (21\%). Serum alpha-fetoprotein was >400 ng in 36\%, portal vein invasion was seen in 40\% and distant metastases in 13\%. Therapy was offered to 141 (43.5\%) patients, but survival data was available in only 130 (93\%) of them. Treatment given and median survival time was as follows: surgical resection, 19 months (n = 14); transarterial chemoembolization, 11 months (n = 23); transarterial rhenium therapy, 26 months (n = 7); radiofrequency ablation, 24 months (n = 4); acetic acid ablation, 13 months (n = 17); oral chemotherapy, 26 months (n = 33), and combination therapy, 26 months (n = 32). Vascular invasion, Okuda staging and therapy were independent factors associated with survival. Treated patients had longer median survival compared to untreated ones (16 months vs. 7 months, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis B infection is the predominant cause of HCC in India. Serum alpha-fetoprotein was diagnostic in only one third of our patients. Most patients present late, when curative therapies are not possible. Treated patients had better survival than untreated ones. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
This article was published in Oncology
and referenced in Journal of Patient Care