Author(s): Scheffer PG, Teerlink T, Heine RJ
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Abstract Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in type 2 diabetes. LDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis are related, both in healthy people and those with diabetes; however, people with diabetes are more prone to atheroma, even though their LDL cholesterol levels are similar to those in their non-diabetic peers. This is because LDL particles are modified in the presence of diabetes to become more atherogenic. These modifications include glycation in response to high plasma glucose levels; oxidative reactions mediated by increased oxidative stress; and transfer of cholesterol ester, which makes the particles smaller and denser. The latter modification is strongly associated with hypertriglyceridaemia. Oxidatively and non-oxidatively modified LDL is involved in plaque formation, and may thus contribute to the accelerated atherosclerosis. This review discusses the techniques currently used to determine the physicochemical properties of LDL, and examines the evidence that modification of these properties plays a role in the accelerated atherosclerosis associated with type 2 diabetes.
This article was published in Diabetologia
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy