Author(s): Fine DH, Hammond BF, Loesche WJ
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Abstract Inappropriate use of antibiotics by clinicians leads to development of antibiotic resistance. For the most part, antibiotics are prescribed in dental practice for prophylactic and therapeutic reasons. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed to prevent diseases caused by members of the oral flora introduced to distant sites in a host at risk or introduced to a local compromised site in a host at risk. In most cases, prophylaxis is used for prevention of endocarditis. Therapeutic antibiotics are prescribed, in most cases, to treat diseases of hard and soft tissues in the oral cavity after local debridement has failed. Antibiotics used for prophylaxis must: (1) be active against the major pathogens; and (2) achieve a tissue loading dose before the bacteria are introduced. Antibiotics used for therapy are required in cases where the infection is already present and thus the agent must reach the site of infection at a high enough level for a long enough time to produce the desired effect. For an exogenous agent the goal is to eliminate the agent from the site of infection. In the case of an endogenous agent the antibiotic must suppress the organism at the site of infection. Recent evidence underscores the important role of antibiotics in the treatment and prevention of diseases initiated in the oral cavity that have the potential to spread to distant organs in the body.
This article was published in Int J Antimicrob Agents
and referenced in Journal of Antimicrobial Agents