Author(s): Lundeen SJ, Otterson MF, Binion DG, Carman ET, Peppard WJ
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Abstract Clostridium difficile, the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea, is known to cause severe colitis. C. difficile small bowel enteritis is rare (14 case reports) with mortality rates ranging from 60 to 83\%. C. difficile has increased in incidence particularly among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. This case series of six patients from 2004 to 2006 is the largest in the literature. All patients received antibiotics before colectomies for ulcerative colitis and developed severe enteritis that was C. difficile toxin positive. Three patients underwent ileal pouch anal anastomosis and loop ileostomy. Four of the six patients had C. difficile colitis before colectomy. Presenting symptoms were high volume watery ileostomy output followed by ileus in five of six patients. Four of the six patients presented with fever and elevated WBC. Five of the six developed complications requiring further surgery or prolonged hospitalization. Patients were treated with intravenous hydration and metronidazole then converted to oral metronidazole and/or vancomycin. None of the patients died. A high suspicion of C. difficile enteritis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and history of C. difficile colitis may lead to more rapid diagnosis, aggressive treatment, and improved outcomes for patients with C. difficile enteritis.
This article was published in J Gastrointest Surg
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals