alexa Cobalt and the iron acquisition pathway: competition towards interaction with receptor 1.


Bioenergetics: Open Access

Author(s): Chikh Z, Hmadi M, Miquel G, HaDuong NT, El Hage Chahine JM

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Abstract During iron acquisition by the cell, complete homodimeric transferrin receptor 1 in an unknown state (R1) binds iron-loaded human serum apotransferrin in an unknown state (T) and allows its internalization in the cytoplasm. T also forms complexes with metals other than iron. Are these metals incorporated by the iron acquisition pathway and how can other proteins interact with R1? We report here a four-step mechanism for cobalt(III) transfer from CoNtaCO(3)(2-) to T and analyze the interaction of cobalt-loaded transferrin with R1. The first step in cobalt uptake by T is a fast transfer of Co(3+) and CO(3)(2-) from CoNtaCO(3)(2-) to the metal-binding site in the C-lobe of T: direct rate constant, k(1)=(1.1+/-0.1) x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1); reverse rate constant, k(-1)=(1.9+/-0.6) x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1); and equilibrium constant, K=1.7+/-0.7. This step is followed by a proton-assisted conformational change of the C-lobe: direct rate constant, k(2)=(3+/-0.3) x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1); reverse rate constant, k(-2)=(1.6+/-0.3) x 10(-2) s(-1); and equilibrium constant, K(2a)=5.3+/-1.5 nM. The two final steps are slow changes in the conformation of the protein (0.5 h and 72 h), which allow it to achieve its final thermodynamic state and also to acquire second cobalt. The cobalt-saturated transferrin in an unknown state (TCo(2)) interacts with R1 in two different steps. The first is an ultra-fast interaction of the C-lobe of TCo(2) with the helical domain of R1: direct rate constant, k(3)=(4.4+/-0.6)x10(10) M(-1) s(-1); reverse rate constant, k(-3)=(3.6+/-0.6) x 10(4) s(-1); and dissociation constant, K(1d)=0.82+/-0.25 muM. The second is a very slow interaction of the N-lobe of TCo(2) with the protease-like domain of R1. This increases the stability of the protein-protein adduct by 30-fold with an average overall dissociation constant K(d)=25+/-10 nM. The main trigger in the R1-mediated iron acquisition is the ultra-fast interaction of the metal-loaded C-lobe of T with R1. This step is much faster than endocytosis, which in turn is much faster than the interaction of the N-lobe of T with the protease-like domain. This can explain why other metal-loaded transferrins or a protein such as HFE-with a lower affinity for R1 than iron-saturated transferrin but with, however, similar or higher affinities for the helical domain than the C-lobe-competes with iron-saturated transferrin in an unknown state towards interaction with R1. This article was published in J Mol Biol and referenced in Bioenergetics: Open Access

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