Author(s): UtoKondo H, Ayaori M, Ogura M, Nakaya K, Ito M,
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Abstract RATIONALE: Association of habitual coffee consumption with coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality has not been established. We hypothesized that coffee may enhance reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) as the antiatherogenic properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). OBJECTIVE: This study was to investigate whether the phenolic acids of coffee and coffee regulates RCT from macrophages in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: Caffeic acid and ferulic acid, the major phenolic acids of coffee, enhanced cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages mediated by HDL, but not apoA-I. Furthermore, these phenolic acids increased both the mRNA and protein levels of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC)G1 and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), but not ABCA1. Eight healthy volunteers were recruited for the ex vivo study, and blood samples were taken before and 30 minutes after consumption of coffee or water in a crossover study. The mRNA as well as protein levels of ABCG1, SR-BI, and cholesterol efflux by HDL were increased in the macrophages differentiated under autologous sera obtained after coffee consumption compared to baseline sera. Finally, effects of coffee and phenolic acid on in vivo RCT were assessed by intraperitoneally injecting [(3)H]cholesterol-labeled acetyl low-density lipoprotein-loaded RAW264.7 cells into mice, then monitoring appearance of (3)H tracer in plasma, liver, and feces. Supporting in vitro and ex vivo data, ferulic acid was found to significantly increase the levels of (3)H tracer in feces. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee intake might have an antiatherogenic property by increasing ABCG1 and SR-BI expression and enhancing HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from the macrophages via its plasma phenolic acids.
This article was published in Circ Res
and referenced in Medicinal & Aromatic Plants