Author(s): Hayward BE, Fantes JA, Warner JP, Intody S, Leek JP,
Abstract Share this page
Abstract The glucokinase regulator (GCKR) is a 65-kDa protein that inhibits glucokinase (hexokinase IV) in liver and pancreatic islet. The role of glucokinase (GCK) as pancreatic beta cell glucose sensor and the finding of GCK mutations in maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) suggest GCKR as a further candidate gene for type 2 diabetes. The inhibition of GCK by GCKR is relieved by the binding of fructose-1-phosphate (F-1-P) to GCKR. F-1-P is the end product of ketohexokinase (KHK, fructokinase), which, like GCK and GCKR, is present in both liver and pancreatic islet. KHK is the first enzyme of the specialized pathway that catabolizes dietary fructose. We have isolated genomic clones containing the human GCKR and KHK genes. By fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), KHK maps to Chromosome (Chr) 2p23.2-23.3, a new assignment corroborated by somatic cell hybrid analysis. The localization of GCKR, originally reported by others as 2p22.3, has been reassessed by high-resolution FISH, indicating that, like KHK, GCKR maps to 2p23.2-23.3. The proximity of GCKR and KHK was further demonstrated both by two-color interphase FISH, which suggests that the two genes lie within 500 kb of each other, and by analysis of overlapping YAC and P1 clones spanning the interval between GCKR and KHK. A new microsatellite polymorphism was used to place the GCKR-KHK locus between D2S305 and D2S165 on the genetic map. The colocalization of these two metabolically connected genes has implications for the interpretation of linkage or allele association studies in type 2 diabetes. It also raises the possibility of coordinate regulation of GCKR and KHK by common cis-acting regulatory elements.
This article was published in Mamm Genome
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism