Author(s): Kaneko Y, Fukazawa H, Ohno H, Miyazaki Y
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Abstract Candida albicans is the primary cause of systemic candidiasis, which has a high mortality rate. Unfortunately, the number of antifungal drugs available for treatment of Candida infections is limited, and there is an urgent need for development of new drugs and alternative therapeutic options. We investigated the combinatory effect of fluconazole (FLCZ) and 640 FDA-approved drugs in vitro. Ten drugs enhanced and 77 drugs attenuated the antifungal activity of FLCZ. Other drugs did not appear to alter the antifungal activity of FLCZ, although 17 drugs displayed potency equivalent to or greater than that of FLCZ. The 10 FLCZ-enhancing drugs included three inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, whose synergistic activity had been reported previously. However, the antifungal effects of 3 FLCZ enhancers-artesunate, carvedilol, and bortezomib-were previously unknown. In addition, many drugs were found to attenuate the antifungal activity of FLCZ, including 17 cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, 15 estrogen-related agents, vitamin A- and D-related compounds, antihypertensive drugs, and proton pump inhibitors. Although the clinical significance remains to be determined, analyses of molecular events responsible for synergy or antagonism could provide insight into more efficient use of existing antifungals and lead to novel therapies.
This article was published in J Infect Chemother
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