Author(s): Mehta MC, Jain AC, Billie M
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Abstract Alcohol and tobacco consumption are correlated. Smokers consume more alcohol than do nonsmokers, and alcohol consumers smoke more than do teetotalers. The independent effects of alcohol and nicotine on the cardiovascular system are well documented, but combined effects of short-term administration are unknown. This experimental work was designed to study the effects due to short-term administration of alcohol and nicotine on cardiovascular system. In phase I, 30 experiments were performed to study the dose-response curve of both the drugs. In phases II and III, 15 dogs were subjected to 30 experiments. In phase II, ethanol, 400 mg/kg, was given i.v., followed by nicotine 50 microg/kg, i.v., and in phase III, sequence of drug administration was reversed to study the effects on hemodynamics and coronary artery blood flow. The dose-response curve established the i.v. dose of ethanol, 400 mg/kg, and nicotine, 50 microg/kg. Ethanol administration caused a nonsignificant increase in heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVS), and left ventricular mechanical work (LVMW), and a decrease in maximal rate of increase of LV pressure per second (dP/dt), stroke volume (SV), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), pulmonary artery mean pressure (PAM), right atrial pressure (RAP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), and average peak velocity of coronary blood flow (APV) had mild significant increases as compared with controls. Nicotine significantly increased heart rate, mean arterial pressures, LVEDP, and pulmonary artery, pulmonary capillary wedge, and right atrial pressures. Nicotine increased dP/dt (2,062-3,188; p < 0.006) and decreased APV (9 to 8; p < 0.03). Combined ethanol followed by nicotine had synergistic increase in HR, SD, MAP, LVS, LVEDP, pulmonary pressures, CO, SV, dP/dt (2,184 > 5,206; p < 0.005), MVO2, and LVMW. However, the excitatory effects of nicotine were attenuated when ethanol was administered after nicotine (dP/dt, reduced from 2,058 to 1,653; p < 0.04, and APV increased from 10 to 12; p < 0.02). We conclude that ethanol increased APV but had nonsignificant effects on the hemodynamics, whereas nicotine reduced the APV and had significant excitatory responses. In combination (i.v.), ethanol + nicotine produced significant synergistic excitatory effects. On the other hand, the nicotine + ethanol combination increased APV and caused attenuation of the excitatory effects of nicotine in dogs.
This article was published in J Cardiovasc Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy