Author(s): Raykov Z, Grekova S, Galabov AS, Balboni G, Koch U,
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Abstract Oncolytic viruses have emerged as a novel class of potent anticancer agents offering an improvement on chemo- and radiotherapy in terms of tumor targeting and reduction of side-effects. Among these agents, autonomous parvoviruses have attracted the attention of researchers for their ability to preferentially replicate in and kill transformed cells, and to suppress tumors in the absence of adverse reactions in various animal models. We have previously shown that lethally irradiated autologous tumor cells can support parvovirus H-1PV production and serve as carriers to deliver progeny H-1PV into the vicinity of lung metastases in a rat tumor model, resulting in H-1PV infection of and multiplication in metastatic cells. It is known that irradiated autologous (neoplastic) cells can also act as a therapeutic vaccine against the original tumor. Yet the ability of these cells to suppress metastases in the above model was found to be much increased as a result of their H-1PV infection. This prompted us to determine whether H-1PV boosted the tumor-suppressing capacity of the autologous vaccine by increasing its immunogenic potential and/or by making it a factory of oncolytic viruses able to reach and destroy the metastases. Both effects could be dissociated in the presence of neutralising antibodies which either prevent the progeny viruses from spreading to metastatic cells, or deplete the CD8 effector cells from the immune system. This strategy revealed that the H-1PV infection of tumor cells enhanced their ability to trigger an immune response for which uninfected tumor cells could be the targets, thereby amplifying and taking over from the direct viral oncolytic activity. This dual oncolytic/vaccinal effect of H-1PV holds out promises of clinical applications to cancer therapy.
This article was published in Oncol Rep
and referenced in Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination