Author(s): Chainuvati S, Nafziger AN, Leeder JS, Gaedigk A, Kearns GL, , Chainuvati S, Nafziger AN, Leeder JS, Gaedigk A, Kearns GL,
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Abstract Previously, we have validated a 4-drug phenotyping cocktail, the "Cooperstown cocktail," using caffeine (cytochrome p450 [CYP] 1A2, N-acetyltransferase-2 [NAT2], and xanthine oxidase [XO]), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), omeprazole (CYP2C19), and intravenous midazolam (hepatic CYP3A). Data suggest that warfarin can be used as a safe and accurate biomarker for CYP2C9, and if warfarin is administered with vitamin K, the pharmacodynamic effect is ablated. Twelve subjects received the Cooperstown cocktail, warfarin plus vitamin K, and both sets of biomarkers (Cooperstown 5+1 cocktail) in a randomized crossover fashion. On the basis of log-transformed data and a paired t test, no significant difference was seen for S-warfarin area under the serum concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (P =.09), omeprazole metabolic ratio (P =.374), caffeine metabolic ratio (P =.169 for CYP1A2 activity), midazolam plasma clearance (P =.573), or dextromethorphan metabolic ratio (P =.747) with the Cooperstown cocktail, warfarin plus vitamin K alone, or the Cooperstown 5+1 cocktail. During drug administration, the only side effect was mild and short-lived sedation after intravenous midazolam administration. Phenotypic measurements were in concordance with the subject's CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 genotypes. The Cooperstown 5+1 cocktail may be used to simultaneously assess the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A, NAT2, and XO.
This article was published in Clin Pharmacol Ther
and referenced in Journal of Drug Metabolism & Toxicology