Author(s): Shi L, Zhang W
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Abstract Inspection of the genomes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and Streptomyces avermitilis reveals that each contains 55 putative eukaryotic-type protein phosphatases (PPs), the largest number ever identified from any single prokaryotic organism. Unlike most other prokaryotic genomes that have only one or two superfamilies of eukaryotic-type PPs, the streptomycete genomes possess the eukaryotic-type PPs that belong to four superfamilies: 2 phosphoprotein phosphatases and 2 low-molecular-mass protein tyrosine phosphatases in each species, 49 Mg(2+)- or Mn(2+)-dependent protein phosphatases (PPMs) and 2 conventional protein tyrosine phosphatases (CPTPs) in S. coelicolor A3(2), and 48 PPMs and 3 CPTPs in S. avermitilis. Sixty-four percent of the PPs found in S. coelicolor A3(2) have orthologues in S. avermitilis, indicating that they originated from a common ancestor and might be involved in the regulation of more conserved metabolic activities. The genes of eukaryotic-type PP unique to each surveyed streptomycete genome are mainly located in two arms of the linear chromosomes and their evolution might be involved in gene acquisition or duplication to adapt to the extremely variable soil environments where these organisms live. In addition, 56 \% of the PPs from S. coelicolor A3(2) and 65 \% of the PPs from S. avermitilis possess at least one additional domain having a putative biological function. These include the domains involved in the detection of redox potential, the binding of cyclic nucleotides, mRNA, DNA and ATP, and the catalysis of phosphorylation reactions. Because they contained multiple functional domains, most of them were assigned functions other than PPs in previous annotations. Although few studies have been conducted on the physiological functions of the PPs in streptomycetes, the existence of large numbers of putative PPs in these two streptomycete genomes strongly suggests that eukaryotic-type PPs play important regulatory roles in primary or secondary metabolic pathways. The identification and analysis of such a large number of putative eukaryotic-type PPs from S. coelicolor A3(2) and S. avermitilis constitute a basis for further exploration of the signal transduction pathways mediated by these phosphatases in industrially important strains of streptomycetes.
This article was published in Microbiology
and referenced in Enzyme Engineering