alexa Comparative analysis of predictive models for nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenicity using both toxicogenomics and quantitative structure-activity relationships.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics

Author(s): Liu Z, Kelly R, Fang H, Ding D, Tong W

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Abstract The primary testing strategy to identify nongenotoxic carcinogens largely relies on the 2-year rodent bioassay, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. There is an increasing effort to develop alternative approaches to prioritize the chemicals for, supplement, or even replace the cancer bioassay. In silico approaches based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) are rapid and inexpensive and thus have been investigated for such purposes. A slightly more expensive approach based on short-term animal studies with toxicogenomics (TGx) represents another attractive option for this application. Thus, the primary questions are how much better predictive performance using short-term TGx models can be achieved compared to that of QSAR models, and what length of exposure is sufficient for high quality prediction based on TGx. In this study, we developed predictive models for rodent liver carcinogenicity using gene expression data generated from short-term animal models at different time points and QSAR. The study was focused on the prediction of nongenotoxic carcinogenicity since the genotoxic chemicals can be inexpensively removed from further development using various in vitro assays individually or in combination. We identified 62 chemicals whose hepatocarcinogenic potential was available from the National Center for Toxicological Research liver cancer database (NCTRlcdb). The gene expression profiles of liver tissue obtained from rats treated with these chemicals at different time points (1 day, 3 days, and 5 days) are available from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Both TGx and QSAR models were developed on the basis of the same set of chemicals using the same modeling approach, a nearest-centroid method with a minimum redundancy and maximum relevancy-based feature selection with performance assessed using compound-based 5-fold cross-validation. We found that the TGx models outperformed QSAR in every aspect of modeling. For example, the TGx models' predictive accuracy (0.77, 0.77, and 0.82 for the 1-day, 3-day, and 5-day models, respectively) was much higher for an independent validation set than that of a QSAR model (0.55). Permutation tests confirmed the statistical significance of the model's prediction performance. The study concluded that a short-term 5-day TGx animal model holds the potential to predict nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenicity. © 2011 American Chemical Society This article was published in Chem Res Toxicol and referenced in Journal of Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics

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