Author(s): Hamed SH, Sriwiriyanont P, deLong MA, Visscher MO, Wickett RR, , Hamed SH, Sriwiriyanont P, deLong MA, Visscher MO, Wickett RR,
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Abstract Several tyrosinase inhibitors have been developed and utilized to ameliorate various cutaneous hyperpigmentary disorders and complexion discolorations. Deoxyarbutin (dA) (i.e., 4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy]phenol), designed using quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR), demonstrates effective inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase and skin-lightening capability (1). However, its comparative safety, effectiveness, and reversibility to other known tyrosinase inhibitors in human melanocytes had not been determined. The effect of dA was assessed in cultured human skin cells, on xenographs, and with a clinical trial. Using cultured human melanocytes, the maximum concentration of dA that allowed 95\% viability was fourfold greater than for hydroquinone (HQ), indicating that dA is less cytotoxic/cytostatic than HQ. The viability of cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts was also less compromised by increasing concentrations of dA as opposed to HQ. At the maximum concentration allowing normal cellular viability, dA effectively inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin content in human melanocytes, whereas HQ was marginally inhibitory. Upon removal of dA, tyrosinase activity and melanin content was normalized within five days. Topical application of dA on human xenografts resulted in a gradual and visually apparent skin lightening effect during an eight-week period. In a clinical trial, dA facilitated fading of pre-tanned skin to a statistically significant greater extent than either HQ or no treatment. These results demonstrate that dA is a potentially safe, effective, and reversible tyrosinase inhibitor.
This article was published in J Cosmet Sci
and referenced in Journal of Pigmentary Disorders