Author(s): Domino KB, Anderson EA, Polissar NL, Posner KL
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Abstract Postoperative nausea and vomiting are important causes of morbidity after anesthesia and surgery. We performed a meta-analysis of published, randomized, controlled trials to determine the relative efficacy and safety of ondansetron, droperidol, and metoclopramide for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. We performed a literature search of English references using both the MEDLINE database and a manual search. Double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials comparing the efficiency of the prophylactic administration of ondansetron, droperidol, and/or metoclopramide therapy during general anesthesia were included. A total of 58 studies were identified, of which 4 were excluded for methodological concerns. For each comparison of drugs, a pooled odds ratio (OR) with a 95\% CI was calculated using a random effects model. Ondansetron (pooled OR 0.43, 95\% CI 0.31, 0.61; P < 0.001) and droperidol (pooled OR 0.68, 95\% CI 0.54, 0.85; P < 0.001) were more effective than metoclopramide in preventing vomiting. Ondansetron was more effective than droperidol in preventing vomiting in children (pooled OR 0.49; P = 0.004), but they were equally effective in adults (pooled OR 0.87; P = 0.45). The overall risk of adverse effects was not different among drug combinations. We conclude that ondansetron and droperidol are more effective than metoclopramide in reducing postoperative vomiting. IMPLICATIONS: We performed a systematic review of published, randomized, controlled trials to determine the relative efficacy and safety of ondansetron, droperidol, and metoclopramide for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting. Ondansetron and droperidol were more effective than metoclopramide in reducing postoperative vomiting. The overall risk of adverse effects did not differ.
This article was published in Anesth Analg
and referenced in Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research