Author(s): Van der Merwe D, Riviere JE
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The effects of water and ethanol vehicles on stratum corneum and silastic membrane partitioning of 11 industrial and agricultural compounds were studied to aid in characterizing and assessing risk from skin exposure. Zero percent, 50% and 100% aqueous ethanol solutions were used as solvents for (14)C labeled phenol, 4-nitrophenol, pentachlorophenol, dimethyl parathion, parathion, chloropyrifos, fenthion, triazine, atrazine, simazine and propazine. Compound partitioning between the solvents and porcine stratum corneum/silastic membrane were estimated. Stratum corneum was exposed to aqueous ethanol ranging from 0% to 100% v/v ethanol in 20% increments and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to obtain an index of lipid disorder. Gravimetry and FT-IR were used to demonstrate lipid extraction in aqueous ethanol solutions. Partitioning patterns in silastic membranes resembled those in stratum corneum and were correlated with octanol/water partitioning. Partitioning was highest in water and was higher from 50% ethanol than from 100% ethanol, except for parathion, 4-nitrophenol, atrazine and propazine. Correlation existed between molecular weight and partitioning in water, but not in ethanol and ethanol/water mixtures. Lipid order, as reflected in FT-IR spectra, was not altered. These studies suggest that stratum corneum partitioning of the compounds tested is primarily determined by relative compound solubility between the stratum corneum lipids and the donor solvent. Linear relationships existed between octanol/water partitioning and stratum corneum partitioning. Partitioning was also correlated with molecular weight in water solvent systems, but not in ethanol and ethanol/water mixtures. Ethanol and ethanol/water mixtures altered the stratum corneum through lipid extraction, rather than through disruption of lipid order.
This article was published in Toxicol In Vitro
and referenced in Journal of Allergy & Therapy