Author(s): Ge X, Lam H, Modi SJ, LaCourse WR, Rao G,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: The glucose binding protein (GBP) is one of many soluble binding proteins found in the periplasmic space of gram-negative bacteria. These proteins are responsible for chemotactic responses and active transport of chemical species across the membrane. Upon ligand binding, binding proteins undergo a large conformational change, which is the basis for converting these proteins into optical biosensors. METHODS: The GBP biosensor was prepared by attaching a polarity-sensitive fluorescent probe to a single cysteine mutation at a site on the protein that is allosterically responsive to glucose binding. The fluorescence response of the resulting sensor was validated against high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with pulsed electrochemical detection. Finally, a simple fluorescence reader was built using a lifetime-assisted ratiometric technique. RESULTS: The GBP assay has a linear range of quantification of 0.100-2.00 microM and a sensitivity of 0.164 microM(-1) under the specified experimental conditions. The comparison between GBP and HPAEC readings for nine blind samples indicates that there is no statistical difference between the analytical results of the two methods at the 95\% confidence level. Although the methods of fluorescence detection are based on different principles, the response of the homemade device to glucose concentrations was comparable to the response of the larger and more expensive tabletop fluorescence spectrophotometer. CONCLUSIONS: A glucose binding protein labeled with a polarity-sensitive probe can be used for measuring micromolar amounts of glucose. Using a lifetime-assisted ratiometric technique, a low-cost GBP-based micromolar glucose monitor could be built.
This article was published in J Diabetes Sci Technol
and referenced in Journal of Biosensors & Bioelectronics