alexa Complex home care: Part 2- family annual income, insurance premium, and out-of-pocket expenses.
Engineering

Engineering

International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications

Author(s): Piamjariyakul U, Yadrich DM, Ross VM, Smith CE, Clements F,

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Abstract Annual costs paid by families for intravenous infusion of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) health insurance premiums, deductibles, co-payments for health services, and the wide range of out-of-pocket home health care expenses are significant. The costs of managing complex chronic care at home cannot be completely understood until all out-of-pocket costs have been defined, described, and tabulated. Non-reimbursed and out-of-pocket costs paid by families over years for complex chronic care negatively impact the financial stability of families. National health care reform must take into account the long-term financial burdens of families caring for those with complex home care. Any changes that may increase the out-of-pocket costs or health insurance costs to these families can also have a negative long-term impact on society when greater numbers of patients declare bankruptcy or qualify for medical disability.
This article was published in Nurs Econ and referenced in International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications

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