Author(s): Wickramasinghe SN
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Abstract Three types of congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia (CDA) were originally identified on the basis of the pattern of dysplastic changes in the erythroblasts and the results of the acidified serum lysis test (Ham test). These were designated CDA types I, II and III. Several other types have been described subsequently and new forms continue to be reported. Some patients with CDA develop iron overload even without repeated blood transfusion and may present with the complications of severe iron overload. Dysmorphic features are seen in some cases, especially of CDA type I. In CDA type II, incomplete processing of N-linked oligosaccharides leads to a marked reduction of polylactosamines associated with band 3 of the red cell membrane. A few cases of CDA type III develop lymphoid neoplasms. Some of the Swedish cases of CDA type III have developed a retinal abnormality characterized by angioid streaks and macular degeneration. The chromosomal localizations of the disease gene in CDA types I and II and in the Swedish family with CDA type III are now known, but the identities of the mutant genes are still unknown. Cases of CDA type I have shown a partial haematological response to interferon-alpha, however the biochemical basis of this response is unclear. An important step in the diagnosis of sporadic cases of CDA is the exclusion of known causes of acquired dyserythropoiesis.
This article was published in Blood Rev
and referenced in Journal of Blood Disorders & Transfusion