Author(s): Sofocleous CT, Rosen RJ, Raskin K, Fioole B, Hofstee DJ
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Abstract PURPOSE: To review a single-center experience in the management of symptomatic congenital vascular malformations of the hand and forearm with special attention to embolotherapy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients with vascular malformations referred for arteriography and possible intervention between 1983 and 1998. Arteriography and venography were performed in all patients to differentiate between true high-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and low-flow primary venous malformations (PVM). The clinical and radiological data, procedural results, and follow-up data were retrieved and reviewed. RESULTS: In a 15-year period, 39 patients (22 men; mean age 22.5 years, range 1-51) had symptomatic vascular lesions diagnosed in the forearm and hand: 21 AVMs, 17 PVMs, and one complex lesion with both AVM and PVM. Thirty-four (87\%) lesions were treated with immediate technical success achieved in 31 (91\%) cases; 5 (13\%) lesions were not amenable to percutaneous treatment. There were no major complications, but 3 embolized AVMs had significant residual flow (81.6\% technical success on intention to treat basis). Long-term follow-up ranging to 5 years was available in 26 of the 34 treated patients; the mean symptom-free period was 30 months for the AVM patients and 30.5 months for the PVM group, with an average of 1.5 and 1.2 embolization procedures, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Vascular malformations of the hand and forearm are extremely rare lesions that demand a multidisciplinary approach for optimal diagnosis and management. Microembolotherapy with or without surgery has offered the highest level of safety and success to date.
This article was published in J Endovasc Ther
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals