Author(s): Levine HG, Langness LL
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Abstract Setting demands and performance characteristics were compared for mildly mentally retarded and nonretarded basketball players similar in age, playing experience, and general skill level. Observational research was used to study organizational and interactional aspects of competitive games and to record individual and team playing statistics. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess levels of anxiety. Results show that even though the retarded adults studied were ostensibly playing under "normal" conditions, the games were demonstrably different from those played by nonretarded players in terms of physical setting, rules, coaching, and officiating. Retarded players performed under these conditions with significantly higher levels of anxiety and diminished team effectiveness. The broader consequences of competition in the lives of retarded players was examined.
This article was published in Am J Ment Defic
and referenced in Journal of Down Syndrome & Chromosome Abnormalities