Author(s): Shin JW, Buxboim A, Spinler KR, Swift J, Christian DA,
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Abstract Self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells depend on asymmetric division and polarized motility processes that in other cell types are modulated by nonmuscle myosin-II (MII) forces and matrix mechanics. Here, mass spectrometry-calibrated intracellular flow cytometry of human hematopoiesis reveals MIIB to be a major isoform that is strongly polarized in hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors (HSC/Ps) and thereby downregulated in differentiated cells via asymmetric division. MIIA is constitutive and activated by dephosphorylation during cytokine-triggered differentiation of cells grown on stiff, endosteum-like matrix, but not soft, marrow-like matrix. In vivo, MIIB is required for generation of blood, while MIIA is required for sustained HSC/P engraftment. Reversible inhibition of both isoforms in culture with blebbistatin enriches for long-term hematopoietic multilineage reconstituting cells by 5-fold or more as assessed in vivo. Megakaryocytes also become more polyploid, producing 4-fold more platelets. MII is thus a multifunctional node in polarized division and niche sensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Cell Stem Cell
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy